....CCG Research |

Handbook on China and Globalization

08:30-09:00 Registration

09:00-09:15 Organizers’ Welcome


Wang Huiyao, President of Center for China and Globalization (CCG); Counselor for the State Council, PRC

Cui Mingmo, President of China Association for International Economic Cooperation (CAFIEC)

H.E. Nicholas Rosellini, UN Resident Coordinator in China (Confirmed)

9:15-10:45 Session 1 (Ministerial Roundtable): Reflections on Reform and Opening-up as the World Heads into

Globalization 4.0


Wang Huiyao, President of Center for China and Globalization (CCG); Counselor for the State Council, PRC

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

Chen Deming, Former Minister of Commerce; President of MOFCOM China Association of Enterprises with Foreign

Investment (CAEFI); CCG Advisor (Confirmed)

Chen Jian, Former Vice Minister of Commerce; CCG Advisor (Confirmed)

He Yafei, Former Vice Minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Former Deputy Director of the Overseas Chinese

Affairs Office of the State Council; CCG Co-Chair (Confirmed)

Liu Yanhua, Former Vice Minister of Science and Technology; Counselor for the State Council; CCG Advisor


Long Yongtu, Former Vice Minister of MOFCOM; Former Secretary General of Boao Forum for Asia; CCG Chair


10:45-11:00 Coffee Break

11:00-12:30 Session 2 (Ambassadorial Roundtable): Driving International Cooperation for the Belt and Road

Initiative and Beyond in the Era of Globalization 4.0


Wang Huiyao, President of Center for China and Globalization (CCG); Counselor for the State Council, PRC

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

H.E. Clare Fearnley, Ambassador of New Zealand to China

H.E. Diego Ramiro Guelar, Ambassador of Argentina to China (Confirmed)

H.E. Lan Lijun, Director-General of China Fund of International Studies (CFIS); Former Ambassador of China to

Finaland, Canada and Indonesia

H.E. Eoin O'Leary, Ambassador of Ireland to China (Confirmed)

H.E. Miguel Angel Ramirez Ramos, Ambassador of Cuba to China (Confirmed)

H.E. Nicholas Rosellini, UN Resident Coordinator in China (Confirmed)

H.E. Luis Schmidt, Ambassador of Chile to China

H.E. Su Ge, Chairman of China National Committee for Pacific Economic Cooperation, Former Chinese Ambassador to

Iceland, CCG Advisor

H.E. Wojciech Zajaczkowski, Ambassador of Poland to China

12:30-14:00 Session 3 (Luncheon): Creating a Shared Future or More Fractured World? Technology and

Governance in the Era of Industry 4.0


Ronnie Chan, Chairman of Hang Lung Properties; CCG Co-Chair (Confirmed)

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

Guo Sheng, CEO of Zhaopin.com; CCG Senior Council Member


Linda He, Chairman and President of Wailian Overseas Consulting Group; CCG Vice Chair (Confirmed)

Michael Kuan, Founder and CEO of Kuan Capital, CCG Vice Chair (Confirmed)

James Liang, Co-founder and Executive Chairman of Ctrip; CCG Vice Chair (Confirmed)

Liao Jianwen, Chief Strategy Officer of JD Group

Mi Wenjuan, Founder and CEO of VIPKID; CCG Senior Council Member

Xu Xiaoping, Founder of Zhen Fund; Co-Founder of New Oriental Group; CCG Senior Vice Chair

Zhang Yaqin, President of Baidu; CCG Senior Council Member

14:00-15:30 Session 4 (China-US Think Tank Experts’ Roundtable): Escaping Thucydides Trap- China, the

United States, and the Trade Conflict Beyond


Wang Huiyao, President of Center for China and Globalization (CCG); Counselor for the State Council, PRC

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

Andrew Browne, Editorial Director, Bloomberg New Economy Forum (Confirmed)

Ronnie Chan, Chairman of Hang Lung Properties; CCG Co-Chair (Confirmed)

Wendy Cutler, Vice President of Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) (Confirmed)

He Ning, Former Director-General of Department of Americ and Oceania, Ministry of Commerce; Former Minister for

Commercial Affairs at Chinese Embassy to U.S.; CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Huo Jianguo, Former President of the Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation, Ministry of

Commerce, CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Daniel Ikenson, Director of Herbert A. Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies, CATO Institute (Confirmed)

Jin Xin, Director of China Center for Contemporary World Studies

Liu Shijin, Deputy Director of Economic Council under the CPPCC; Vice President of Development Research

Foundation under the State Council; CCG Advisor (Confirmed)

Michael Pillsbury, Director of Center on Chinese Strategy, Hudson Institute (Confirmed)

Ruan Zongze, Vice President of China Institute of International Studies (CIIS) (Confirmed)

Globalization Roundtable Forum


Shen Guofang, Executive Director of China Fund of International Studies (CFIS); Former Deputy Representative and

Ambassador of China to U.N.

Justin Vaisse, Director-General of Paris Peace Forum (Confirmed)

Jeremie Waterman, President of China Center, Vice President for Greater China, US Chamber of Commerce

Xue Lan, Dean of Schwartzman College at Tsinghua University; CCG Expert Advisor

Yu Yunquan, Deputy Director-General of the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies (Confirmed)

Yuan Peng, Director of Institute of American Studies and President at China Institute of Contemporary International

Relations (CICIR)

Zheng Yongnian, Chair of CCG Expert Advisory Committee; Director of East Asian Institute, National University of

Singapore (Confirmed)

Zhu Min, Dean of National Institute of Financial Research, Tsinghua University; Former Vice President of IMF

15:30-17:00 Session 5 (CEO Roundtable): Inbound and Outbound Investments in an Era of Great Power



Miao Lu, Vice President and Secretary-General of CCG

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

Ronnie Chan, Chairman of Hang Lung Properties; CCG Co-Chair (Confirmed)

Nick Coyle, CEO & Executive Director, AustCham Beijing (Confirmed)

Fan Wenzhong, Chairman of Beijing Financial Holdings Group; Former Director-General for Foreign Affairs at China

Banking Regulatory Commission (Confirmed)

Fu Chengyu, Former Chairman of Sinopec Group; CCG Advisor

Dan Gao, Chairman and President of Positec Group; CCG Senior Vice Chair (Confirmed)

Anthony Leung, CEO of Nan Fung Group; Former Financial Secretary of the Hong Kong SDR (Confirmed)

Howard Li, Chairman and CEO of Waitex Group; Co-Chair of Committee of 100 Greater China (Confirmed)

Liu Jiren, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Neusoft Corporation

Globalization Roundtable Forum


Pang Xinxing, Chairman of StarTimes Group

Jacob Parker, Vice President of China Operations at the U.S.-China Business Council (Confirmed)

Qi Bin, Vice General Manager of China Investment Corporation

Margaret Ren, China Chairman of Bank of America Merrill Lynch; CCG Vice Chair

Feike Sijbesma, CEO of DSM

Song Zhiping, Chairman of China National Building Materials Group Corporation (Confirmed)

Tim Stratford, Chairman of AmCham China (Confirmed)

Wang Shi, Founder of China Vanke; CCG Senior Vice Chair (Confirmed)

Wang Guangfa, Chairman of the Board, Beijing Fazheng Group; CCG Senior Vice Chair (Confirmed)

Wang Linda, Chairman of Yihai Property Holdings Limited (Confirmed)

Zhang Hongli, Co-chair of Hopu Investment Management, Former Vice President of Industrial and Commercial Bank of

China, CCG Vice Chair

Zhang Huarong, Chairman and President of Huajian Group; CCG Vice Chair

Zhao Yong, Chairman of Fuwah International Group; CCG Vice Chair

17:00-17:30 Coffee Break/Networking

17:30-20:00 Session 6 (CCG Experts Roundtable): Pathways for China to Contribute to Global Governance 4.0

(Invitation-Only, Light Meals Included)


Yang Rui, Host of CGTN, CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow

Lineup of Panelists (in alphabetic order):

Amitav Archaya, Professor of International Relations at American University; CCG International Advisor (Confirmed)

Chen Dingding, Professor of International Relations at Jinan University (Confirmed)

Roundtable Forum


Chen Wenling, Chief Economist of China Center for International Economic Exchange(CCIEE); CCG Expert Advisor


Giuseppe Crocetti, Chief of Mission, International Organization for Migration (IOM) (Confirmed)

Cui Fan, Professor at University of International Business and Economics (UIBE); CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow


Wendy Cutler, Vice President of Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) (Confirmed)

He Ning, Former Director-General of Department of American and Oceanian Affairs at Ministry of Commerce; Former

Minister for Commercial Affairs at Chinese Embassy to U.S.; CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

He Shenquan, Member of Editorial Board of Global Times

He Weiwen, Former Commercial Counsellor at Chinese Embassy in New York and San Francisco;CCG Senior Fellow


Huo Jianguo, Former President of the Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation, Ministry of

Commerce, CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Daniel Ikenson, Director of Herbert A. Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies, CATO Institute (Confirmed)

Jiang Shan, Former Director-General of Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of Ministry of Commerce; CCG

Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Masahiro Kawai, Representative Director and Director-General, Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia


Lv Kejian, Former Director-General of Department of Asian Affairs of Ministry of Commerce; Former Minster of Chinese

Embassy in Japan; CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Pang Zhongying, Distinguished Professor and Dean at Ocean Development Institute, Ocean University of China(OUC);

CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow

Michael Pillsbury, Director of Center on Chinese Strategy, Hudson Institute (Confirmed)

Shi Yinhong, Dean of School of International Studies, Renmin University of China; Counselor for the State Council

Su Hao, Director of Center for Strategic and Peace, China Foreign Affairs University; CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow


Sun Jie, Former Director of Department of Asset Management at China Security Regulatory Commission; President of

Asset Management Association of China, CCG Senior Fellow (Confirmed)


Teng Jianqun, Director of the Department for American Studies and Center for Arms Control and International Security,

China Institute of International Studies (CIIS); CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Tu Xinquan, Professor and Dean of China Institute for WTO Studies, University of International Business and

Economics (UIBE); CCG Nonresident Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Wang Yong, Professor and Director of Center for International Political Economy at Peking University; CCG Nonresident

Senior Fellow (Confirmed)

Zha Daojiong, Professor at School of International Studies, Peking University; CCG Expert Advisor (Confirmed)

Zheng Yongnian, Chair of CCG Expert Advisory Committee; Director of East Asian Institute, National University of

Singapore (Confirmed)
The Center for China and Globalization’s (CCG) new book “Handbook on China and Globalization” co-edited by CCG President Dr. Wang Huiyao and Secretary General Dr. Miao Lu has been published by Edward Elgar, the UK-based internationally renowned social science publishing house. This book brings together nearly 40 experts and scholars from all over the world in the field of globalization to reflect on and address the issues surrounding the globalization process and China’s global influence. It discusses and forecasts, from various perspectives, China’s role in the future of globalization.

2018 marked the 40th anniversary of China's Reform and Opening-Up and the 17th year since China's accession to the WTO. In the past few decades, China has gradually integrated into the modern world economic and trading system. Driven by globalization, capital from all over the world has flowed into the Chinese market, with more and more Chinese companies are expanding their business abroad. However, since the 2008 global economic crisis, globalization has encountered severe setbacks. As trade protectionism, unilateralism and populism have gained traction across developed countries and de-globalization is on the rise, China is faced with mounting challenges and questions from international society regarding its role in globalization.

The Handbook on China and Globalization is one of the few English-language books published by a Chinese think tank with an internationally renowned academic publishing house such as Edward Elgar. It boasts extensive research on the issues surrounding China and globalization, and insightful guidance on the understanding of the key trends, challenges and opportunities for China’s globalization process. This publication comes highly recommended by prestigious scholars and experts in this field. Former vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce, Long Yongtu believes this book can not only serve as an important reference for students, professors and researchers, but also provide practical advice for entrepreneurs, investors and government officials dealing in related economic and trade issues. Professor Liu Hong from Nanyang Technological University recommends this book as it opens a door for readers to delve into the study of China and globalization in the 21st century.


This book consists of four sections, each of which covers a key theme of China's role in globalization.

First section

The first section discusses the process of China's globalization, focusing on the characteristics, trends and challenges of Chinese companies going global. Highlighting the unprecedented success in globalization Chinese companies have achieved, this chapter also points to the challenges faced by internationalizing Chinese companies. Through their persistent efforts, Chinese entrepreneurs have gradually changed the “Made in China” stereotype, making remarkable achievements in R&D innovation. As the world enters into a new era of globalization, Chinese companies need to more accurately reposition their roles and strategies to be better adapted to new trends and meet new challenges.

Second section

The book’s second section looks at China's role in global economic governance from a macro perspective. This section posits that as China’s economic power continues to grow rapidly, its role in global economic governance will also change gradually. It states that China is transforming its role from a passive follower of global economic norms to a proactive rule maker and that China’s currency, RMB, is also playing a growing role in the world monetary system. Although there remains some doubt in the international community about the direction of China's economic development, the research shows China still strives to push globalization forward despite global economic slowdowns and uncertain prospects. This section concludes there is enough reason to believe that China can make a bigger contribution to globalization and the world’s economic development going forward.

Third section

The third section of the book focuses on China's soft power and the influence of China's diplomatic relations, covering issues including China’s traditional political philosophy, Sino-US relations, China-US-Persian Gulf relations, China-Africa cooperation, and China’s BRICS relations. It tracks China's cooperation and diplomatic relations in each region, and provides constructive suggestions on how China can enhance its cultural influence.

Fourth section

The last chapter of this book sheds light on the current situation of Chinese immigration and talent development policies. This section presents research results from Chinese and foreign scholars on China's scientific research environment, the current status of overseas Chinese students, economic growth strategy and talent management strategy related to migration. Following China’s Reform and Opening-up, as the country further integrated into the global economy, more and more Chinese people have gone abroad to study and work. Meanwhile, China’s growing national power has been attracting overseas students to return back to China for employment and entrepreneurship opportunities. Chinese returnees have become an important force in China’s innovation and development and have made great contributions to China's globalization. This section provides an in-depth analysis of China's talent management and development strategy that can guide future efforts to improve China’s global talent competitiveness.

This new book is part of Edward Elgar’s book series on "Contemporary China Studies". Covering a wide range of the issues that include outbound investment, FDI, innovation and development, global governance, soft power, immigration and talent policies, this publication reflects on China's successes and lessons in globalization, and examines the current status of China's globalization and discusses its role in the new era of globalization. This book provides a solid foundation for future academic research on China and globalization, and serves as an important and practical reference for policy, business and academic communities.


Introduction to the Handbook on China and Globalization
(Lu Miao)

PART I China Goes Global: Outward Direct Investment

  • China’s Outward Investment: Chinese Enterprise Globalization’s Characteristics, Trends and Challenges (Huiyao Wang)
  • Chinese Innovation & Entrepreneurship Going Abroad: From Counterfeits & Copycats to Innovation Exporters
  • (Dickie Liang-Hong Ke twitter Enrique de Diego Barcelona Twitter
  • China’s Way to the U.S. Market: China’s Outward Direct Investment in the United States (Ms Bo Liang PA, Li Yan, Gary Quinlivan, and Thomas W. Cline )
  • Patterns and Characteristics of Chinese Contracts: An Empirical Study across Asia (Yi Feng Claremont, Zhijun Gao and Wanjun Jiang Peking U )
  • Venturing Out into the World: China in Global Investment (Mrs Fei Qin Bath/LSE)
  • China Goes Global: Outward Investment (Guoyong Liang Geneva UNCTAD)

PART II China’s New Role in Global Economic Governance (see also worldwide research of world trade belts

and railroads bri.school onebeltnews.com beltusasia.com cyberchinacenter.com - youth journa;istsforhumanity.com projects of FOundation Norman Macrae, Japan Order of Rising Sun. UK CBE, sub-editor of end poverty at The Economist (1 2 3 4 5 6 7) ,explorer of internet and telecommuting futires since 1962)

  • Global Governance: How Asia Shapes the World Joergen Oerstroem Moeller Singapore Denmark)
  • China’s Belt & Road Initiative: A Counterforce to Globalization Reversal (Bai Gao)
  • China’s Innovation-Driven Growth and Its Emerging Impact on Global Innovation (Weilin Zhao )
  • Could the People’s Currency become the Global Currency? (Giles Chance)
  • China and Global Structural Change: Past, Present and Future (Manuel Pinho columbia and beijing)
  • From Management to Leadership? China’s International Policy toward Foreign Investment (Julien Chaisse and Frances Wang)
  • China’s Global Power Ambition: Expectations, Opportunities, and Challenges(Zhiqun Zhu)
  • Perspectives, Prospects and Challenges of Panchsheel in Asia: The India‡China Context (Rajkumar Singh)

PART III China’s Soft Power and Its Implication to Foreign Relations

  • The Competition over Soft Power between China and the United States: An Analysis of How East Asians View a Rising China (Yun-han Chu, Min-hua Huang and Jie Lu )
  • Six Aspects of Wangdao to Create Values: The Basic Mindset to Promote the Development of Human Civilization (Stan Shih)
  • Geopolitical Shifts in the Triangle “US—GCC—China” Present Relations and Future Prospects (Hichem Karoui)
  • The Chinese Intelligence Services in Africa (GĂ©rald Arboit )
  • China and Global Economic Governance: Does BRICS Matter? (Huanyu Zhao)

PART IV China’s Global Migration: Diaspora and Talent

  • Returning to the Chinese Academy of Sciences: Shortage, Environment, and Rewards (David Zweig)
  • The patterns and trends of Chinese studying abroad (Lu Miao)
  • A Tale of Two Strategies: Economic Growth Strategy and Talent (Tony Fang)
  • Globalization in China and Studying in North America (Wei Li, Lucio Lo, and Yining Tan)
  • Management Talent—A Critical Success Factor for China’s Globalization(Leigh R. Baker)


  • China and Its Participation in Global Governance in the New Era (Yafei He)

About Edward Elgar

Edward Elgar is a world leading academic and professional publishing house. Specializing in social sciences and law, it boasts a roster of 5,500 published books and is highly praised for its strength in digital publishing and global influence. To have its new book published by Edward Elgar reflects CCG's growing influence in academic research and the global reach of its research.

Center for China & Globalization(CCG)is a leading Chinese nongovernmental think tank based in Beijing. It is dedicated to the study of Chinese public policy and globalization. Boasting a strong research team, it enjoys an impressive record of publications and events with broad public policy impact.

CCG is ranked in the Top 100 Think Tanks worldwide, the Best nongovernmental think tank in China and in the Top 6 Think Tanks in China according to the world-renowned "2018 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report", released annually by the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program. CCG is currently the only non-governmental Chinese think tank to hold “UN Special Consultative Status”.

Two well-known scholars, Dr. Wang Huiyao and Dr. Miao Lu, founded the CCG in 2008. Today near 100 in-house researchers and staff serve this thinking hub with subsidiaries and divisions spanning across China including Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Hong Kong.



(C) Copyright Center for China & Globalization 2008-2019
Tel: (8610)65611038, 65611039 Email: contact@ccg.org.cn


playing card pack2019 worldrecordjobs.com

JFKennedy: In 1961 a US president could assign 10000 young brains one great goal (moon race) to advance nations and inspire the world. By 21st C any new president began with legacy of 500000 pen pushers and 2 bipolar parties stuck in past arguments instead of leveraging next giant leaps for humanity. What might have happened if US hadn’t lost confidence in cultural integration, with JFK the first of many leadership assassinations 1963 & English language media turning virally pessimistic 24/7/365/60 ?

Valuing Commons not Socialism: Before world war 2 the BBC started the most innovative media experiment. What if the constitution of world service media wasn’t a corporation nor a .gov but owned by and for all peoples. While licence fee investment structure perpetuated, government control of secrets needed in war time has subsequently prevented much of BBC’s potential. David Attenborough is an exception -from the earliest days of tv show he has celebrated nature with a human joy His more famous brother Richard went from acting to directing Gandhi the movie and bridging out of London Gandhian networks founded during Gandhi’s last 2000 person summit out of London, Quaker Friends House Easton 1925
1965: Intel’s Gordon Moore alumni to multiply analytic and communications capacity of silicon chips 100 fold every decade to 2030.Human Race to Imagineer inter-networking with trillion times moore tech than moon landing. How would decades 5G (2020s) 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G(1970s) spin? Could 200 nations road map each decade of rising exponentials ahead of time? Futurise history -replace slavery’s half millennium of inequalities and gun-wars with love & action millennial SDGs so each next girl/boy born to thrive through livelihoods & community

Von Neumann: world wars accelerated engineering technologies: coding, telecoms, transport, nuclear. In 10 hectic years before death by cancer, JVN tided these up for US leap far ahead on nuclear; all other tech from computing to new brain science open sourced globally. Thus immigrant from Europe’s East hyperlinked flows of positive productivity: human & machine intel. He’ be shocked Nasa missed human interest story of moon landing 1969: Look at mother earth: 10% people continent America so lucky lots of land & ocean; due to how Britannia colonized birders 50% people continental Asians so little equality of ocean access; remap world trade out of aisingapore.org so millennials first sustainability generation. So much work to do 1955-2025report.net
Through Q3 of 20th C,Borlaug grew one of 2 memes whose grassroots networking by village women has saved over a billion people from starvation and dehydration. His crop science raised productivity and food security of village communities. With south Asia’s staple, rice, it is as vital a primary literacy as numbers. Life critical community knowhow is borderless- local rice science innovation energetically shared by Chinese and Bangladeshi matriarchs since 1970s raising life expectancy
Q3 20th C: American Deming improves engineering productivity by order of magnitude. Ironically US’s big engineering companies wouldn’t hire him. Deming networks became how japan and far east re-engineered worldwide supply chains maximizing JIT & SME & next gen infrastructure maps. Core to new capitalism: sustain positive flows: heartland and coastal supercities- by 1962 japan risen 2nd largest economy, by 1975 first 10 years of Singapore transformed far east seas: world trade’s leading space
1964 Detroit, Larry Brilliant’s career starts: first job as doctor to care for Warner Brother’s pop band Wavy Gravy on global tour. After hard year’s work, band relaxes: visiting consciousness guru in Afghan hills. Even remote villagers saw moon race beginning era of no mission impossible. Larry stayed in A. Asia: the man to end smallpox, and …since 1960s The Economist argues local celebration universal health care = core audit designing youth’s global sustainability
1968 Yoko Ono Japanese American multimedia Artist rose from birth to aristocratic family Tokyo 1933 to marrying Beatle John Lennon NY 1969. Wedding song Imagine forwarded united world of peoples beyond old nations. While John killed 1980, Yoko’s vision cheers on artistic supercities and www networkers of love and human capital

America’s most undervalued pop star the Grateful Dead’s J Perry Barlow who wend from leading the band to EFF : Tim Berner Lee’s west coast partner
The second bottom-up knowhow meme for saving a billion lives: Oral Rehydration (OR)discovered in a Calcutta lab. Not until former shell CEO Fazle Abed changed career 1972 to poverty alleviation and developing poorest Muslim women villagers webs can build nations that OR became core primary school curriculum and with crop science catalyst to banking for village family businesses. During 1970s Fazle started up BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee with head office in village so that BRAC became the first Freire-audited, & now world #1 livelihood edu system, and NGO partnership
Missing Lesson: Back in 1930s when Montessori helped Gandhi design peer to peer village schools, OR unknown
The moon race catalyzed a continent-wide debate across Latin America. What had this region inherited culturally from the Spanish and Portuguese. BrazilianPaulo Freire pedagogy of oppressed chartered the vision of community experiential learning mediated by Franciscan servant leaders. It wasn’t until late 1980s that Boston health students started scaling this with services in Haiti and Peru but as we see from Fazle Abed, Bangladesh Muslim village women empowerment started putting Freire into motion from 1972 onwards. POP took on new meaning of Preferential Opportunity Poor- nations great leaders live , learn with poorest -link in new tech
1964: Out of British Embassy in Tokyo Prince Charles enjoys watching the Olympics on the best tv set he had ever seen. He asks the engineer installing it , Akio Morita, to inward invest in the UK- the first small but hi-visibility step in transformation between Japan and European investments in mutual human productivity and trust-flows
Kissinger’s US diplomacy through 1970s mediated ultimate 21stc miracle- what was the right time for fifth of worlds people to rejoin world markets- china had withdrawn in 1860 rather than accept British ultimatum of opium as trading currency
1946 Japan Emperor Family: Japanese Emperor Hirohito changed Far East’s most aggressive colonist by declaring to his peoples his greatest error. I was wrong in thinking Japanese engineers would be good at war-let’s find every world class value of engineering Far East islanders can share and map happy world trading routes around. From 1962, Economist surveys “Consider Japan” as leading rising sun nations as smart superports. Ref Japan Keiretsu, KoreaChaebol

1976 China’s Deng Xiaopingexperiments 5 capitalisms in one: diaspora inward investment, Keynesian agriculture, ..asks japan redesign Beijing’s engineering Uni- scary old communism replaced by human cap: grandmothers & 1-child family tree
Fazle Abed Bangladesh BRAC.net through 0G-5G decades; starts up community resilience hubs chaired by village girls changed the global aid industry; however how to mobilise this through 2G 1990s to 5G 2020s depended on partnership sequencing. Those who kept joining Fazle Abed’s mission just in time have achieved ultra SDgoal miracles eg digital bank-a-billion bkash.com. Back in Marco Polo’s day St Francis demonstrated nature as men’s prime network and local health : the Clares’ network
Which nations’ schools dared explore how 1980s changed language literacy for ever. Coding became as valuable as mother tongue
Bill Gates PCLanguage 1 extended S valley to Seattle
Jobs Apple Mac Valley PCL2
Torvalds from Nordica to S Valley: PCL3: open source Linux
Just as coding was the lost curriculum of 20th C, The Lancet has published chapter & verse : missing in 2010s is peer to peer pre-adolescent health
1975 Hangzhou: Jack Ma Part 1- seeing 10 year old Ma bored in classrooms, his Geography teacher said our designated tourist town Hangzhou has no real maps of outside world. Why don’t you train 1000 youth to speak English. be joyful tourist guide, explore their global stories. Jack Ma took education outside classroom age 11-30. Today, different regions in China are designing practical non-examination schooling –eg Girls AI
1985 China: personal telephones non-existent. Jack Ma 2 hears rumor that Ren Zengfei (Huawei birth 1985) is helping rural communities leapfrog to 21st C telecoms.By1995, his first trip USA he sees worldwide web and Bezos launch Amazon. He asks the greatest job creating question of changing millennium – when www comes to china how can youth maximise jobs & integrates SMEs into every markets value chain. Jack starts 25 years youth ambassador ecommerce/ fintech
Berners Lee invents worldwide web and transfers from Geneva to MIT Boston. Life’s mission, as seen London Olympics www is for everyone. Co-star opening acts_ Queen Elizabeth & J Bond parachute in
Over 20 us companies cooperate a million dollars each in intergenerational research launch MIT media lab :– first global hub questioning how digital changes architectures wherever people mobilise apps, rebuild infrastructure
Negropronte MIT Media Lab founder, just as Gates later rued missing main language of smart mobiles, Negropronte edutech too early with PCs. But positive uses of co-workers wiki tech emerge including Jimmy Waleswikipedia
MIT Quadirs take mobile phones to village bangladesh – rural world first 1996 -china soon emukates in race to mobilese end of poverty. Quadirs first syndicate includes gift from Soros and tech transfer from Telenor and momentum of GrameenDr Yunus

Happy 2020s Play GAMES WorldRecordJobs.com (search creator names) – fantasy game 1: pack of 52 playing cards - transfer list Q&A chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk
Bloomberg NY
Of 10 smartest supercities (population over 15 million), helping all citizens value new tech, USA has one in top 10. New York. gravitated by Bloomberg’s finance (world’s wealthiest top 10), media and social goals, NY 2010s on a roll with early childhood edu, return to nearly free CUNY uni system, Bloomberg conscience: healthy societies generates strong economies. Over 3 billion dollars donated to NY-Baltimore Bloomberg John Hopkins bodes well for AI Health. US time-warped infrastructure stunted other US cities– let’s see American youth/teachers benchmark smarts of NY, ignore DC’s divisive lobbies. World’s biggest city Shanghai’s Bloomberg?- Fosun 5 : Guo G, Liang X, Wang Q, Fan W and tech wizard Tan J
Masa Son Tokyo
1981: Masa Son started softbank out of Tokyo just as Japan began its first of five ten year AI plans 1G to 5G. As the 4G decade of 2010s hands over to SDG’s ultimate decade of AI 5G IOT and 7 other top 10 ways to innovate humanity, Masa Son has formed the deepest AI partnership funds- they linkin from US West coast to Taiwan to Japan to China mainland to UK and Saudi and anywhere human AIdemocracy.com could yet rise and shine. An open secret: use supercity hubs as #digitalcooperation labs -check out sharing economy models such as wework – cloud up big data that can empower a giant leap from one to many urgently needy societies in a world where the Artificials are borderless in their statistical superpowers even if the humans are still bordered by 200 different cultural stories of our race’s past glory. Quite simply if AI does not help fintech and edutech value children as every place’s win-win currency, Robots will take over the world and mother earth will have a breakdown. 2020s are most exciting time to be alive if transparency of 2020s AI funds is celebrated . As London Olympics asked: does the global business language of English need a James Bond and Queen Elizabeth to beam down to help identify who’s hubbing loveq? AI- dare we overcome the spectre of dismal haters of hard working families ? Can we ground growth of communities by and for all? Related share girls supercities social economics of Musicforsdgs.com Techforsdgs.com
Guterres NY -of 100 moving parts inside the UN which is most important? Its worth exploring 2 opposite kind of answers that Guterres life has prepped him for. 1. Emergencies the world asks UN to resolve- eg flying in food where million are starving; squatting on borders with refugees until place leaders rediscover faith hope and love. 2 Innovation hubs that educators and youth can map the 5G Ai trillion times moore 2020s with. Starting 2016 UN appointed Jack Ma as youth livelihoods ambassador. Guterres also knows how to culturally translate golden rule religions and places prioritizing spiritual self-determination
Jack Ma 3 from student year 2019 j ma returns to his first career teaching but with 25 years more tech tools and links to the world’s biggest digital payment system and AI explores (eg DAMO www.alibabauni.com) than when he trained 1000 youth person to person to learn English becoming tour guides of china and Silk Road’s world favorite tourist destination Hangzhou. No market is immune from needing to sustain small enterprises – now jack’s reached every market he can with commerce – he’s looking for service celebration platforms include 5 supercities Olympics and green superplace connectors who value their youth as win-win currency

Kishore Mahbubani, Singapore served Lee Kuan Yew. LKY was greatest 20th leader of 6 million person network (Singapore’s birth new nation 1965). Greatness as Singapore defines it is win-win trade with 360 degree diversity that people and places can develop with each other. Anything you don’t know you don’t know about North-East-West-South is worth checking out with KM scholars. He celebrates experiential learning and translations of two of globalisation’s most positive jobs - building Singapore’s National University, as UN Ambassador watching how 200 nations leaders interacted over decades. Read KM’s books on how Singapore has celebrated diversity with all its Asean neighbors, and become the smartest isle on the planet see edu-hub AIsingapore.org
Bezos Seattle Founded ecommerce 1995.- In 2018 Amazon surveyed 202 US cities for 2020s human AI fitness. 200 failed. One succeeded but the suburb that most needed Amazon didn’t get it. One American capital was causing so much distress for the world that Bezos decided to set up HQ2 as close to its DC border as practical. Alumni of Case’sAOL 1985 including 1776 hubs have “DCBA” dream DC-Baltimore-Amazon- an alternative AI democracy play to google’s alphabet
Schwarzman NY- ex ceo Schmidt of alphabet declared June 2019 that the smartest giving billionaires would do a Schwartzman. So far Schwartzman has planted 3 East-North university colleges : 2 engineering (Tsinghua-MIT) one moral sentiments (Oxford). Map how to fast forward future of AI research to world’s most curious and loving under 30s not bureaucrats who’d trap them in debt nor
Schwab Geneva
Hosting world economic fora in breaks between skiing was bit cheeky in mid 1960s when father Norman Macrae loved Schwab’s dialogues as antidote to EU bureaucracy. Today as well as China and Davos annual world economic forums, Schwab links 3 additional IR4 supercity hubs – Beijing Tokyo San Fran and 300+ youth global shapers hubs. IF Geneva puts Europe on AI 2020s maps – then thank KC
Pony Ma FounderTencent- Shenzen regions ecosystem for internet startups. Originally a games web, Tencent invented 2010s favorite mobile chat-tool – called we chat, its been “copied” by whatsapp now a facebook company. Wechat pay extended into one of world’s top 2 digital payment system. Now facebook announces its desire to follow again with LIbra
1998 Serge Brin; Valley’s leading Russian American: from search to AI Alphabet by way of Android O/S: alumnisat.com mobile 4G -open sourced by Linux Kernel
1999, Romano Prodi,Italian version Economist Entrepreneurial Revolution 1976, starts 5 years leading EU. Med sea integration exclude as Germany superpowers on with its integration
Ka-Shing HK- everyone who loves Hong Kong can thank this billionaire who wired it up before China realized that wireless is the way to empower half a billion Chinese youth dreams. Ka-shing portfolio of investment in newly open university partnerships links entrepreneurs across hemispheres
Kai-Fu Lee Cancer interrupted KFL as Alphabets AI cheerleader- after HK cure started hub at gateway of Tsinghua university- asked to help design AI avenue of entrepreneurs in every university town- his 4 favorite AI superpower compasses: internet platforms, human body language, big companies with a future, supercity
Robin Li In China,Baidu plays similar role to google-alphabet. Whilst its initial business model was search, like alphabet it becomes a magnet for digital futures projects. Baidu may we waiting for its big leap-rumor is its main smart tech designer for china’s biggest new town
WeWork hubs: 2005 UK was supposed to be Blair-Mandelas year of make poverty history- instead it became 7/7 nightmare. Friends started up the good hub guide- 15 years on: wework by Adam Neumann (hobby babel AI linguistics) is benchmark AI hub -watch which supercities’ linkin

AirBnb- 1984’s 2025report.net foresaw home swapping as vital to AI maps: eg sustainable tourism www family edu, diverse ecosystem- Brian Chesky’s alumni small step next airbnb designs houses!
Elon Musk the south African who learnt from space what nasa did not and united clean energy engineers in marathon struggles against short-term speculators

Jerry Yang 95’s launch of yahoo very pc centric- by 2001 yang foresaw clouds and mobiles- linked investors from silicon valley japan Taiwan HK and china- if the world is sustained by tech, JY will be one of the most modest but greatest 360 degree connectors
Jim Kim: WHO’s bottom-up health aka anthropologists change medical world when Harvard classrooms exchanged with partners in health practice Haiti & Peru, Scaling support- came from billionaire Soros who asked JK andFarmer serve dissident prisons in Russia to minimize TB there. PIH founded first last mile health teaching hospital in Africa in Rwanda- just in time to help Soros and brac & last mile servants in w africa end ebola
Xi Jinping -Lee Kuan Yew nominated XI as an oriental Mandela- capable of living all his peoples enough to survive many downs as well as ups – in the partners he helped youth scale- I recommend western aliens who want to give XI a hearing start with his 1988 book out of poverty- it explains a lot more than any presidential biography I have seen
Kalanick & Camp’s Uber ridesharing changed what citizens expect AI big transport o/s origin 08 Paris leweb-see more infra treasure maps at bri.school . NB developing world, uber of motorcycles is kickstarter to smart capital citizenry
Japan’s Reiwa’s first year relaunches human AI. AbeSoc5.0 lot of connecting as do #metoo fashion Japan and Latin billionaires CEOs @ Uniqlo & Zara
Nilekani , Kalam, Modi.Nilekani, India’s greatest job creating technologist, world leader in tele centers spent a decade designing the most exciting big data- over a billion people’s digital ID. This was a shared vision of youth champions late great Kalam – incubating entrepreneurship inside gov : India’s Space networks. Today Kishore values Modi next steps.
Kagame: when china hosted g20 2016 jack ma spent a year to sherpa tech world citizens including women, youth and fintech. EWTP: He promised to give his knowledge on sme commerce & digital pay to first African nation sure they wanted him . Kagame stepped up as he had done with jim kim an farmer’s first Africa teaching hospital
Kishore believes LKY would vote forWidodo as Asean reality leader. When a mayor of a city as huge as Jakarta become president chances of sustainable human flows rise. More: See last world bank annual meet of jim kim -eg panel with Jack Ma and Nilekani and chief listener Widodo

Fifth Annual China and Globalization Forum

China World Hotel Beijing, April 14, 2019


BeltRoad1...sustain generations now or forever after hold your peace

brighter future : global wind report : china dialogue brics report -rough transcript>OPen spaces of sister banks of 21st C human develop %!% peoples- role shanghai; plus 2018 opportunity: A1Brics (g20 argentina), A2Brics(aiib mumbai), A3Brics (Brics Joburg), ICE (India-China-English Language worlds). BRICKStech roads for sdgs started 1945 with nations uniting at san francisco opera house -call this ar0 and america's west coat arctic road 1.. tokyo was the first to learn smarter engineering from american deming- by early 1960's as the economist shows - japan's post industrial revolution where all co-workers live mattered had made this island number 2 economy -more productive per life than usa; it shared this knowhw down island taiwan, hk singapore and to south borean penisular we ball this br0; by 1875 the chinese diapora were the 3rd bidgest financial network- they asked japan to share beter engineering with the fift of the world's people hubbing out of beijing and better vilage sciences -agriculture from american borlaug, killer diseases of kids and mother with help of american like james grant and larry brilliant- the hard work wss done by barefoot female last mile mefics in both china and bangladesh we call bangladesh and the south asia coast to its east br2- in trade terrms rub by the brits this region extended to west pakistan port of gwadar historically owned by oman- west of pakiatan on the cntinent and acriss the gukf to the land bridge bewen old world's 3 coontinents- we label br7 (aka middle east or west asia)- we call mainland china br0; its amazing that americans did not learn from deming or japan- eg bullet trains could have conncred west coast usa aro and proved to multiply interstate win-wins so that ar2 east coast usa also linkedin - boston could be 1 hour from ny 2 hours from dc 1 hour from detroit; a bullet train infrastructure across heartland usa could have been built before china afforded to do this in late 190s; china's super-rail is a god thing for humanity- it offers chances to develop human win-wins across china's 16 borders - some of which due to eg stalin- not china's fault- remain places where people lives have not really gone beyond subsistence in these 27decades since scota smith andt started up age of man and machines- to finish othe old world we call russia and its iced up east west arcti coast br3; we call east europe br5, west europe br6, the med sea br8- east of the med sea you reach central americwhere we reach ar2; both ar1 and ar2 are long n-s coasts- waterwise ther are only connected in themiddle by the panama canal; north south mapping would be complete without mapping the west coat belt from north sea nations to eg gibraltar as br3; if a tunnel had ben built here to africa br3 could continue down west coast of africs- turning at cape town br 4 goes up east coat of africa- it forks at eg djibouti up the suexz canal bachk to the med or round yemen and uae - ng if russia is to link north south throungh to asia it needs to share the inland sea with ukraine and sails out past istanbul which divides south wast europe and west asia which is where syrua/iraq/iran locate; those who want there to still be a livable climate for our kids nedd north south artcic circle linked nations to negotiate how not to melt down the arctic circle as well as how to transition beyond oil- nb russia and the middle east nations depend on oil for trade- though some of the emirates see education as the number 1 market of the future and host superp global events on both edutech and refugeetech .
left: business leaders summit - nb china's state grid company largest in transmission world - sees its partering purpose to advise smart grids eg 7 billion $ partnerhip in brazil ; profile
of sustainability investmnet world's first 10 co-leaders : comprehensive strategic..35 years of tracking Entreprenurial Revolution (origin The Economist's Norman Macrae 1972) journalistsforhumanity 2017, at the tipping point of 2 opposite end games:big brother's big data big, or little sisters big data small- you digitally play your money to be or not to be

Saturday, October 28, 2017

please click here to text of BRICS summit in Xiamen sept 2017

beltroad maps

we map the world's belt road in 12 sections

0 inside China, 1 mainly east and south of china- a reguiond that contains over 75% of world's largest container trading ports (see rectangle below)
2 India including bangladesh myanmar corridor, 7 the landlocked stans forw china's west through - pakistan and across the sea to the middle easy- china's only chnace of ending inequlaity between its weel developed eastern coastal cities and its landlocked west is improving trading routes and capacities west of china; an early and very affordable success is indicated by the top black line- the china express railway now tranports goos all the way through Eurasia from china to spain; this was achieved by working out most efficient way to unload and reload containership trains at any national jumnctions where railway guages chnaged; china has put a lot of new investment into the corridor that moves through pakistan to a new superport and across to the middle east's superports; this has so far put some strain on its realtionship with india but the hope is both countries will join in co-creatingthe desperatley needed china india bangladesh myanmar corridor
3 russia, 4 east europe - china has always wanted to see strong and p;ositive trades with russia and eastern europe; the economist argued in 1984 these would be a huge western opportunity to as soon as the berlin wall fell; the larouche networks was one of the firts in 1996 to host a summit with china on this; also some of china's most regular trading summits are the Shanghai Coopertaion Organisation and BRICS
5 west europe, 6 n america
8 med sea, 9 africa , 10 s. america - we have double counted natiosn who share the med sea because in te days of marco pol it was the med sea region in west and china in the east that trusted building te world tgrade route known as the silk road; today the med sea countries remain at the gatweay between europe asia and africa; colonila days in both africa and south america mean that neithert contient has ever had a contientwide planning forum for its infrastrucre- eg no trains organsed to integrate the continent
11 worldwide

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

In a declaration, the BRICS(Brazil-Russia-India-China- South Africa -togeteher with 5 guests Egypt, Guinea.., Tajikistan, Mexico and Thailand) called upon all nations to adopt a comprehensive approach in combating terrorism including countering radicalisation and blocking terror financing sources. Here is the full text ofXiamen Declaration

Xiamen, China, 4 September 2017

1. We, the Leaders of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa, met on 4 September 2017 in Xiamen, China, at the Ninth BRICS Summit. Under the theme "BRICS: Stronger Partnership for a Brighter Future", we endeavor to build on our achievements already made with a shared vision for future development of BRICS. We also discussed international and regional issues of common concern and adopted the Xiamen Declaration by consensus.

2. We reiterate that it is the overarching objective and our desire for peace, security, development and cooperation that brought us together 10 years ago. BRICS countries have since traversed a remarkable journey together on their respective development paths tailored to their national circumstances, devoted to growing their economies and improving people's livelihoods. Our committed and concerted efforts have generated a momentum of all-dimensional and multi-layered cooperation fostered by the previous Leaders' Summits. Upholding development and multilateralism, we are working together for a more just, equitable, fair, democratic and representative international political and economic order.

4. Our cooperation since 2006 has fostered the BRICS spirit featuring mutual respect and understanding, equality, solidarity, openness, inclusiveness and mutually beneficial cooperation, which is our valuable asset and an inexhaustible source of strength for BRICS cooperation. We have shown respect for the development paths of our respective choices, and rendered understanding and support to each other's interests. We have upheld equality and solidarity. We have also embraced openness and inclusiveness, dedicated to forging an open world economy. We have furthered our cooperation with emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs). We have worked together for mutually beneficial outcomes and common development, constantly deepening BRICS practical cooperation which benefits the world at large.

4. We draw satisfaction from the many fruitful results of our cooperation, including establishing the New Development Bank (NDB) and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA), formulating the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership, strengthening political and security cooperation including through Meetings of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues and Foreign Ministers Meetings, and deepening the traditional ties of friendship amongst our peoples

5. Recalling our Summits in Ufa and Goa, we will work together to further enhance BRICS strategic partnership for the welfare of our peoples. We commit ourselves to build upon the outcomes and consensus of our previous Summits with unwavering conviction, so as to usher in the second golden decade of BRICS cooperation and solidarity.

6. Believing in the broad development prospects of our countries and the vast potential of our cooperation, we have full confidence in the future of BRICS. We commit to further strengthen our cooperation.

-- We will energize our practical cooperation to boost development of BRICS countries. We will, inter alia, promote exchanges of good practices and experiences on development, and facilitate market inter-linkages as well as infrastructure and financial integration to achieve interconnected development. We shall also strive towards broad partnerships with EMDCs, and in this context, we will pursue equal-footed and flexible practices and initiatives for dialogue and cooperation with non-BRICS countries, including through BRICS Plus cooperation.

-- We will enhance communication and coordination in improving global economic governance to foster a more just and equitable international economic order. We will work towards enhancement of the voice and representation of BRICS countries and EMDCs in global economic governance and promote an open, inclusive and balanced economic globalization, thus contributing towards development of EMDCs and providing strong impetus to redressing North-South development imbalances and promoting global growth.

-- We will emphasize fairness and justice to safeguard international and regional peace and stability. We will stand firm in upholding a fair and equitable international order based on the central role of the United Nations, the purposes and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and respect for international law, promoting democracy and the rule of law in international relations, and making joint efforts to address common traditional and non-traditional security challenges, so as to build a brighter shared future for the global community.

-- We will embrace cultural diversity and promote people-to-people exchanges to garner more popular support for BRICS cooperation through deepened traditional friendships. We will expand people-to-people exchanges in all dimensions, encourage all fabrics of the society to participate in BRICS cooperation, promote mutual learning between our cultures and civilizations, enhance communication and mutual understanding among our peoples and deepen traditional friendships, thus making BRICS partnership closer to our people's hearts.

BRICS Practical Economic Cooperation
7. We note that against the backdrop of more solid global economic growth, enhanced resilience and emerging new drivers, BRICS countries continue to play an important role as engines of global growth. Noting the uncertainties and downside risks that persist, we emphasize the need to be vigilant in guarding against inward-looking policies and tendencies that are weighing on global growth prospects and market confidence. We call upon all countries to calibrate and communicate their macroeconomic and structural policies and strengthen policy coordination.

8. We note that practical economic cooperation has traditionally served as a foundation of BRICS cooperation, notably through implementing the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership and initiatives related to its priority areas such as trade and investment, manufacturing and minerals processing, infrastructure connectivity, financial integration, science, technology and innovation, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) cooperation, among others. We welcome the first report on the implementation of the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership, and the broad package of outcomes delivered by the sectoral ministerial meetings. We commit to use all policy tools - fiscal, monetary and structural - and adopt innovation-driven development strategies to enhance resilience and potentials of our economies, so as to contribute to strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive global growth.

9. Stressing the role of enhanced trade and investment cooperation in unleashing the potential of BRICS economies, we agree to improve and broaden trade and investment cooperation mechanism and scope, with a view to enhancing BRICS economic complementarity and diversification in BRICS countries. We welcome the positive outcomes of the 7th BRICS Trade Ministers Meeting in terms of the cooperative frameworks, roadmaps and outlines on trade and investment facilitation and connectivity and enhanced policy sharing, information exchange, capacity building, through enhanced joint efforts on trade and investment facilitation, trade in services, E-commerce, IPR (in synergy with the cooperation activities among BRICS IP authorities), economic and technical cooperation, SMEs and women economic empowerment. We welcome the setting up of the BRICS E-Port Network that will operate on a voluntary basis and the establishment of the BRICS E-commerce Working Group. We also welcome China's initiative to host an International Import Expo in 2018 and encourage our business communities to actively participate in it.

10. We stress the importance of enhancing BRICS financial cooperation to better serve the real economy and meet the development needs of BRICS countries. We note the agreement by the finance ministers and central bank governors on cooperation on Public Private Partnerships (PPP), including through PPP experience exchange and application of the BRICS Good Practices on PPP Frameworks. We acknowledge the establishment of a temporary task force to conduct technical discussion on various ways of cooperation, including utilizing existing facilities of the MDBs based on national experiences, exploring the possibility of establishing a new PPP Project Preparation Fund and other options. We encourage cooperation and coordination by our accounting standards setters and audit regulators and agree to explore convergence of accounting standards and continue discussion on cooperation on auditing oversight in the area of bond issuance, so as to lay the groundwork for bond market connectivity among BRICS countries, with due regard to applicable national legislation and policies. We agree to promote the development of BRICS Local Currency Bond Markets and jointly establish a BRICS Local Currency Bond Fund, as a means of contribution to the capital sustainability of financing in BRICS countries, boosting the development of BRICS domestic and regional bond markets, including by increasing foreign private sector participation, and enhancing financial resilience of BRICS countries.

11. In order to serve the demand arising from rapid growth of trade and investment among the BRICS countries, we agree to facilitate financial market integration through promoting the network of financial institutions and the coverage of financial services within BRICS countries, subject to each country's existing regulatory framework and WTO obligations, and to ensure greater communication and cooperation between financial sector regulators. We agree to take an active part in the efforts to implement and improve International Standards on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism and Proliferation in FATF, including through cooperation among BRICS Heads of Delegation on AML/CFT, also in the context of the work of BRICS CTWG and by using other platforms and to safeguard integrity of national financial systems. We agree to communicate closely to enhance currency cooperation, consistent with each central bank's legal mandate, including through currency swap, local currency settlement, and local currency direct investment, where appropriate, and to explore more modalities of currency cooperation. We encourage the BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism to continue playing an important role in supporting BRICS economic and trade cooperation. We commend the progress in concluding the Memoranda of Understanding among national development banks of BRICS countries on interbank local currency credit line and on interbank cooperation in relation to credit rating.

12. We highlight the importance of innovation as a key driver for mid and long term economic growth and global sustainable development. We commit to promote cooperation on science, technology and innovation (STI) to forge synergy in tapping new growth momentum for our five economies and continue to address the development challenges we face. We commend the selection of BRICS research and development projects under the BRICS STI Framework Program and note the launch of the 2nd call for projects. We welcome the BRICS STI Cooperation MOU and support enhanced cooperation on innovation and entrepreneurship, including by promoting technology transfer and application, cooperation among science and technology parks and enterprises as well as mobility of researchers, entrepreneurs, professionals and students. We encourage increased participation of the academia, businesses, civil society and other stakeholders in this process, and support the promotion of STI investment and cross-border investment through existing funding, institutions and platforms including the NDB. We agree to continue to work on a cooperation platform for innovation and entrepreneurship and support the implementation of the BRICS Innovation Cooperation Action Plan 2017-2020.

13. We reaffirm our commitment to BRICS industrial cooperation, including on industrial capacities and policies, new industrial infrastructure and standards, and among small, micro and medium-sized enterprises (SMMEs), so as to jointly seize the opportunities brought about by the new industrial revolution and expedite our respective industrialization processes. We encourage exploring the establishment of BRICS Institute of Future networks. We will enhance joint BRICS research, development and innovation in ICT including the Internet of Things, Cloud computing, Big Data, Data Analytics, Nanotechnology, Artificial Intelligence and 5G and their innovative applications to elevate the level of ICT infrastructure and connectivity in our countries. We will advocate the establishment of internationally applicable rules for security of ICT infrastructure, data protection and the Internet that can be widely accepted by all parties concerned, and jointly build a network that is safe and secure. We will increase investment of ICT, recognize the need to further increase investment in ICT Research and development, unleash the dynamics of innovation in producing goods and services. We encourage identification and facilitation of partnership between institutes, organizations, enterprises in the implementation of proof of concepts and pilot projects by leveraging complementary strengths in ICT hardware, software and skills through developing next generation of innovative solutions in the areas of smart cities, health care and energy efficient device, etc. We support active collaboration in implementing the BRICS ICT Development Agenda and Action Plan.

14. We reaffirm our commitment to fully implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We will also advocate equitable, open, all-round, innovation-driven and inclusive development, to achieve sustainable development in its three dimensions - economic, social and environmental- in a balanced and integrated manner. We support the important role of the United Nations, including the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF), in coordinating and reviewing global implementation of the 2030 Agenda, and support the need to reform the UN Development System with a view to enhancing its capability in supporting Member States in implementing the 2030 Agenda. We urge developed countries to honor their Official Development Assistance commitments in time and in full and provide more development resources to developing countries.

15. Underlining the strategic importance of energy to economic development, we commit to strengthen BRICS cooperation on energy. We recognize that sustainable development, energy access, and energy security are critical to the shared prosperity and future of the planet. We acknowledge that clean and renewable energy needs to be affordable to all. We will work to foster open, flexible and transparent markets for energy commodities and technologies. We will work together to promote most effective use of fossil fuels and wider use of gas, hydro and nuclear power, which will contribute to the transformation toward a low emissions economy, better energy access, and sustainable development. In this regard, we underline the importance of predictability in accessing technology and finance for expansion of civil nuclear energy capacity which would contribute to sustainable development in BRICS countries. We encourage continued dialogue on the establishment of a BRICS Energy Research Cooperation Platform and urge relevant entities to continue to promote joint research on energy cooperation and energy efficiency.

16. We commit to further promote green development and low-carbon economy, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, enhance BRICS cooperation on climate change and expand green financing. We call upon all countries to fully implement the Paris Agreement adopted under the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) including the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and urge developed countries to provide financial, technological and capacity-building support to developing countries to enhance their capability in mitigation and adaptation.

17. Stressing the importance of environmental cooperation to sustainable development of our countries and the well-being of our peoples, we agree to take concrete actions to advance result-oriented cooperation in such areas as prevention of air and water pollution, waste management and biodiversity conservation. We recognize the importance of an environmentally sound technology platform and of improving urban environmental sustainability, and support BRICS joint efforts in this regard. Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa appreciate and support China's hosting of the meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2020.

18. Noting the fruitful agricultural cooperation over the past years, we recognize the unique characteristics and complementarity of BRICS countries in agricultural development and vast cooperation potential in this area. In this connection, we agree to deepen cooperation in the five priority areas such as food security and nutrition, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, agricultural technology cooperation and innovation, agricultural trade and investment, and ICT application in agriculture to contribute to stable global agricultural growth and achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. We welcome the establishment in India of the Coordination Center of BRICS Agriculture Research Platform, a virtual network which will facilitate addressing these priority areas.

19. We express concern over the challenges faced by the African continent in achieving independent and sustainable development and in wildlife conservation. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthen cooperation with Africa and help the continent to address illegal wildlife trade, promote employment, food security, infrastructure development and industrialization including through connectivity and developmental initiatives and projects. We reaffirm our strong support for African Union's implementation of its various programs under Agenda 2063 in pursuit of its continental agenda for peace and socio-economic development.

20. Keenly aware of the negative impact of corruption on sustainable development, we support the efforts to enhance BRICS anti-corruption cooperation. We reaffirm our commitment to intensify dialogue and experience sharing and support compiling a compendium on fighting corruption in BRICS countries. We further acknowledge that illegal flow of the proceeds of corruption impairs economic development and financial stability, and support enhanced cooperation in asset recovery. We support the strengthening of international cooperation against corruption, including through the BRICS Anti-Corruption Working Group, as well as on matters related to asset recovery and persons sought for corruption. We acknowledge that corruption including illicit money and financial flows, and ill-gotten wealth stashed in foreign jurisdictions is a global challenge which may impact negatively on economic growth and sustainable development. We will strive to coordinate our approach in this regard and encourage a stronger global commitment to prevent and combat corruption on the basis of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and other relevant international legal instruments.

21. Living in the era of digital economy, we are ready to use opportunities it provides and address challenges it poses for the global growth. We will act on the basis of principles of innovation, partnership, synergy, flexibility, open and favorable business environment, trust and security, protection of consumer rights in order to ensure the conditions for a thriving and dynamic digital economy, that will foster global economic development and benefit everyone.

22. We appreciate the efforts and contribution of the BRICS Business Council and Business Forum to strengthening our economic cooperation in infrastructure, manufacturing, energy, agriculture, financial services, e-commerce, alignment of technical standards and skills development. We welcome the establishment of a working group on regional aviation within the framework of the Business Council and in this connection acknowledge the Brazil's proposal on an MOU on regional aviation partnership. We encourage business communities and associations to actively participate in BRICS cooperation, and give full play to their role as trade and investment facilitation institutions in promoting mutually beneficial cooperation.

23. We recognize the importance of transformation that is taking place in the labor market and the opportunities and challenges it brings. We note with satisfaction the progress in BRICS cooperation with regard to human resources, employment and social security, fostering strong labor market information systems and networking of BRICS of Labor Research Institutes and BRICS Social Security Cooperation Framework. We welcome the achievement of a BRICS common position on governance in the future of work and agree to further strengthen exchanges and cooperation in ensuring full employment, promoting decent work, advancing poverty alleviation and reduction through skills development and achieving universal and sustainable social security systems.

24. We recognize the importance of competition protection to ensure the efficient social and economic development of our countries, to stimulate innovative processes and to provide quality products to our consumers. We note the significance of the interaction between the Competition Authorities of our countries, in particular, in identifying and suppressing restrictive business practices that are of a transboundary nature.

25. We note with satisfaction the progress made by Customs Administrations in their cooperation on trade facilitation, security and enforcement, capacity building and other issues of mutual interest, including through such mechanisms as BRICS Customs Cooperation Committee and BRICS Customs Working Group. We encourage broadened cooperation under the guiding principles of mutual sharing of information, mutual recognition of customs control, and mutual assistance in enforcement so as to boost growth and promote people's welfare. In order to strengthen mutual cooperation in customs matters, we reaffirm our commitment to finalize BRICS Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement at the earliest.

26. We adhere to the principle of utilizing outer space for peaceful purposes and emphasize the need to strengthen the international cooperation in space activities in order to use space technologies to respond to global climate change, environmental protection, disaster prevention and relief and other challenges faced by humankind. 27. Recalling the Saint-Petersburg and Udaipur Declarations of BRICS Ministers for Disaster Management and the decision to establish a BRICS Joint Taskforce on Disaster Risk Management, we underline the importance of consistent joint work of emergency services of BRICS countries aimed at building a safer future by reducing existing disaster risks, including exchange of information on best practices concerning disaster risk management and cooperation in the field of forecasting and early warning for effective response to natural and human induced disasters.

28. We note with satisfaction the progress in BRICS cooperation in such fields as audit, statistics and export credit and agree to further advance cooperation in these fields.

Global Economic Governance

29. We resolve to foster a global economic governance architecture that is more effective and reflective of current global economic landscape, increasing the voice and representation of emerging markets and developing economies. We reaffirm our commitment to conclude the IMF's 15th General Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula, by the 2019 Spring Meetings and no later than the 2019 Annual Meetings. We will continue to promote the implementation of the World Bank Group Shareholding Review.

30. We emphasize the importance of an open and resilient financial system to sustainable growth and development, and agree to better leverage the benefits of capital flows and manage the risks stemming from excessive cross-border capital flows and fluctuation. The BRICS CRA represents a milestone of BRICS financial cooperation and development, which also contributes to global financial stability. We welcome the establishment of the CRA System of Exchange in Macroeconomic Information (SEMI), and the agreement to further strengthen the research capability of the CRA, and to promote closer cooperation between the IMF and the CRA.

31. We welcome the establishment of the NDB Africa Regional Center launched in South Africa, which is the first regional office of the Bank. We welcome the setting up of the Project Preparation Fund and the approval of the 2nd batch of projects. We congratulate the Bank on the ground-breaking of its permanent headquarters building. We stress the significance of infrastructure connectivity to foster closer economic ties and partnerships among countries. We encourage the NDB to fully leverage its role and enhance cooperation with multilateral development institutions including the World Bank and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank as well as with the BRICS Business Council, to forge synergy in mobilizing resources and promote infrastructure construction and sustainable development of BRICS countries.

32. We emphasize the importance of an open and inclusive world economy enabling all countries and peoples to share in the benefits of globalization. We remain firmly committed to a rules-based, transparent, non-discriminatory, open and inclusive multilateral trading system as embodied in the WTO. We reaffirm our commitments to ensure full implementation and enforcement of existing WTO rules and are determined to work together to further strengthen the WTO. We call for the acceleration of the implementation of the Bali and Nairobi MCM outcomes and for the WTO ministerial conference to be held this year in Argentina to produce positive outcomes. We will continue to firmly oppose protectionism. We recommit to our existing pledge for both standstill and rollback of protectionist measures and we call upon other countries to join us in that commitment.

33. Valuing the G20's continued role as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, we reiterate our commitments to the implementation of the outcomes of G20 summits, including the Hamburg Summit and the Hangzhou Summit. We call upon the G20 to further enhance macroeconomic policy coordination to minimize negative spillovers and external shocks to EMDEs. We agree to enhance coordination and cooperation under the Argentina Presidency in 2018, with an aim to make the G20 process and outcomes reflect the interests and priorities of EMDEs.

34. We reaffirm our commitment to achieving a fair and modern global tax system and promoting a more equitable, pro-growth and efficient international tax environment, including to deepening cooperation on addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), promoting exchange of tax information and improving capacity-building in developing countries. We will strengthen BRICS tax cooperation to increase BRICS contribution to setting international tax rules and provide, according to each country's priorities, effective and sustainable technical assistance to other developing countries.

International Peace and Security

35. Cognizant of the profound changes the world is undergoing and the global security challenges and threats faced by the international community, we commit to enhance communication and cooperation in international fora on issues concerning international peace and security. We reiterate our commitment to safeguarding world peace and security and to upholding the basic norms of the international law, and the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations including sovereign equality and non-interference in other countries' internal affairs.

36. We welcome the 7th Meeting of the BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues held on 27-28 July 2017 in Beijing, and commend the meeting for having discussion and deepening our common understanding on global governance, counter-terrorism, security in the use of ICTs, energy security, major international and regional hotspots as well as national security and development. We note Brazil's proposal to establish a BRICS Intelligence Forum. We welcome Chair's report to us on the proceedings of the Meeting and encourage the succeeding chairpersonships to continue this exercise. We look forward to enhancing practical security cooperation agreed upon in the above areas

37. We welcome China's hosting of the Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs/International Relations in Beijing on 18-19 June 2017 at the initiative of China. Ministers exchanged views on major global political, security, economic and financial issues of common concern and on strengthening BRICS cooperation. We look forward to the upcoming meeting of Foreign Ministers on the margins of the UNGA. We welcome South Africa's offer to host the next stand-alone Foreign Ministers Meeting in 2018.

38. We recall that development and security are closely interlinked, mutually reinforcing and key to attaining sustainable peace. We reiterate our view that the establishment of sustainable peace requires a comprehensive, concerted and determined approach, based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equity and cooperation, that addresses the causes of conflicts, including their political, economic and social dimensions. We condemn unilateral military interventions, economic sanctions and arbitrary use of unilateral coercive measures in violation of international law and universally recognized norms of international relations. We emphasize that no country should enhance its security at the expense of the security of others.

39. We reaffirm our commitment to the United Nations as the universal multilateral organization entrusted with the mandate for maintaining international peace and security, advance global development and to promote and protect human rights.

40. We recall the 2005 World Summit Outcome document and reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, and to increase the representation of the developing countries so that it can adequately respond to global challenges. China and Russia reiterate the importance they attach to the status and role of Brazil, India and South Africa in international affairs and support their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN.

41. We reiterate that the only lasting solution to the crisis in Syria is through an inclusive "Syrian-led, Syrian-owned" political process which safeguards the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Syria, in pursuance of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254(2015), and promotes the legitimate aspirations of the Syrian people. We strongly support the Geneva Peace Talks and the Astana process, and welcome the creation of the de-escalation areas in Syria, which contributed to decrease the levels of violence and generate positive momentum and conditions for meaningful progress in the peace talks under the auspices of the UN. We oppose the use of chemical weapons by anyone, for any purpose and under any circumstance.

42. We reiterate the urgent need for a just, lasting and comprehensive solution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in order to achieve peace and stability in the Middle East on the basis of relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid Principles, the Arab Peace Initiative and previous agreements between the parties through negotiations with a view to creating an independent, viable, territorially contiguous Palestinian State living side by side in peace and security with Israel. Committed to making greater contribution to such solution, we express readiness to enhance our contribution towards a just and lasting resolution of the Middle East conflict and support international efforts to promote peace and stability in the region.

43. We congratulate the people and Government of Iraq for the recovery of Mosul and for the progress achieved in the fight against terrorism and reaffirm our commitment to Iraq's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence and our support for Iraqi government and its people. We express our concern over the situation in Yemen and urge all parties to cease hostilities and to resume negotiations supported by the United Nations. We also call on all parties directly involved in the current diplomatic crisis in the Gulf region to overcome their dissensions through dialogue and welcome the efforts of Kuwaiti mediation in this regard.

44. We strongly deplore the nuclear test conducted by the DPRK. We express deep concern over the ongoing tension and prolonged nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula, and emphasize that it should only be settled through peaceful means and direct dialogue of all the parties concerned.

45. We firmly support the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on the Iranian nuclear issue and call upon all relevant parties to comply fully with their obligations and ensure full and effective implementation of the JCPOA to promote international and regional peace and stability.

46. We commend the efforts of African countries, the African Union and sub-regional organizations in addressing regional issues and maintaining regional peace and security, and emphasize the importance of collaboration between the United Nations and the African Union in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. We support efforts towards comprehensively resolving the issues in Democratic Republic of Congo, Libya, South Sudan, Somalia, Central Africa Republic and Western Sahara.

47. We strongly condemn terrorist attacks resulting in death to innocent Afghan nationals. There is a need for immediate cessation of violence. We reaffirm our support to the people of Afghanistan in their efforts to achieve "Afghan-led and Afghan-owned" peace and national reconciliation, to the ongoing international efforts, including the Moscow Format of consultations on Afghanistan and "Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process", as well as multimodal connectivity projects to promote peace and stability, to the fight against terrorism and drug-threat, and to the national reconstruction efforts by Afghanistan. We support the efforts of the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces in fighting terrorist organizations.

48. We, in this regard, express concern on the security situation in the region and violence caused by the Taliban, ISIL/DAISH, Al-Qaida and its affiliates including Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the Haqqani network, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, TTP and Hizb ut-Tahrir.

49. We deplore all terrorist attacks worldwide, including attacks in BRICS countries, and condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations wherever committed and by whomsoever and stress that there can be no justification whatsoever for any act of terrorism. We reaffirm that those responsible for committing, organizing, or supporting terrorist acts must be held accountable. Recalling the primary leading role and responsibility of states in preventing and countering terrorism, we stress the necessity to develop international cooperation, in accordance with the principles of international law, including that of sovereign equality of states and non-interference in their internal affairs. We reaffirm solidarity and resolve in the fight against terrorism, value the 2nd BRICS Counter-Terrorism Working Group Meeting held in Beijing on 18 May 2017, and agree to strengthen our cooperation.

50. We call upon all nations to adopt a comprehensive approach in combating terrorism, which should include countering radicalization, recruitment, movement of terrorists including Foreign Terrorist Fighters, blocking sources of financing terrorism including, for instance, through organized crime by means of money-laundering, supply of weapons, drug trafficking and other criminal activities, dismantling terrorist bases, and countering misuse of the Internet including social media by terrorist entities through misuse of the latest Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). We are committed to prevent and counter the growing spread of terrorist narratives, and to tackle all sources, techniques and channels of terrorist financing. We call for swift and effective implementation of relevant UNSC Resolutions and the FATF International Standards worldwide. We seek to intensify our cooperation in FATF and FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs). We recall the responsibility of all States to prevent financing of terrorist networks and terrorist actions from their territories.

51. We call upon the international community to establish a genuinely broad international counter-terrorism coalition and support the UN's central coordinating role in this regard. We stress that the fight against terrorism must be conducted in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations, international refugee and humanitarian law, human rights and fundamental freedoms. We reaffirm our commitment on increasing the effectiveness of the UN counter-terrorism framework, including in the areas of cooperation and coordination among the relevant UN entities, designation of terrorists and terrorist groups and technical assistance to Members States. We call for expeditious finalization and adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) by the United Nations General Assembly.

52. We recognize the important contribution of BRICS countries to United Nations peacekeeping operations, and the importance of United Nations peacekeeping operations to international peace and security. We emphasize the need for BRICS countries to further enhance communication on peacekeeping matters.

53. We reiterate our commitment to address the world drug problem based on the United Nations drug control conventions, through an integrated, comprehensive and balanced approach to drug supply and demand reduction strategies. We stress the importance of the outcome document of the 30th Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the world drug problem, and call for strengthening of international and regional cooperation and coordination to counter the global threat caused by the illicit production and trafficking of drugs, especially opiates. We note with deep concern the increasing links in some regions of the world between drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime and terrorism.

54. We reiterate the need for all countries to cooperate in promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms under the principles of equality and mutual respect. We agree to continue to treat all human rights, including the right to development, in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis. We will strengthen cooperation on issues of common interests both within BRICS and in multilateral fora including the United Nations Human Rights Council, taking into account the necessity to promote, protect and fulfill human rights in a non-selective, non-politicized and constructive manner, and without double standards.

55. Keenly aware of the global security challenges faced by the international community in the area of international migration, we emphasize the growing role of effective migration regulation for the benefit of international security and development of the society.

56. We consider the UN has a central role in developing universally accepted norms of responsible state behavior in the use of ICTs to ensure a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, stable, orderly, accessible and equitable ICT environment. We emphasize the paramount importance of the principles of international law enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, particularly the state sovereignty, the political independence, territorial integrity and sovereign equality of states, non-interference in internal affairs of other states and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. We emphasize the need to enhance international cooperation against terrorist and criminal misuse of ICTs, reaffirm the general approach laid in the eThekwini, Fortaleza, Ufa and Goa declarations in this regard, and recognize the need for a universal regulatory binding instrument on combatting the criminal use of ICTs under the UN auspices as stated in the Ufa Declaration. We note with satisfaction the progress achieved by the Working Group of Experts of the BRICS States on Security in the use of ICTs. We decide to promote cooperation according to the BRICS Roadmap of Practical Cooperation on Ensuring Security in the Use of ICTs or any other mutually agreed mechanism and acknowledge the initiative of the Russian Federation on a BRICS intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in ensuring security in the use of ICTs.

57. We believe that all states should participate on an equal footing in the evolution and functioning of the Internet and its governance, bearing in mind the need to involve relevant stakeholders in their respective roles and responsibilities. The structures that manage and regulate the critical Internet resources need to be made more representative and inclusive. We note with satisfaction the progress made by the BRICS Working Group on ICT Cooperation. We recognize the necessity to strengthen our cooperation in this area. To that end, BRICS will continue to work together through the existing mechanism to contribute to the secure, open, peaceful and cooperative use of ICTs on the basis of equal participation of the international community in its management.

58. We reiterate that outer space shall be free for peaceful exploration and used by all States on the basis of equality in accordance with international law. Reaffirming that outer space shall remain free from any kind of weapons or any use of force, we stress that negotiations for the conclusion of an international agreement or agreements to prevent an arms race in outer space are a priority task of the United Nations Conference on Disarmament, and support the efforts to start substantive work, inter alia, based on the updated draft treaty on the prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space and of the threat or use of force against outer space objects submitted by China and the Russian Federation. We also note an international initiative for a political obligation on the no first placement of weapons in outer space.

59. Priority should be accorded to ensuring the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, as well as ways and means of preserving outer space for future generations. We note that this is an important objective on the current agenda of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). In this respect, we welcome the decision by the UNCOPUOS Scientific and Technical Sub-Committee Working Group on Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities to conclude negotiations and achieve consensus on the full set of guidelines for the long term sustainability of outer space activities by 2018 to coincide with the commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE + 50).

People-to-People Exchanges

60. We emphasize the importance of people-to-people exchanges to promoting development and enhancing mutual understanding, friendship and cooperation among BRICS peoples. We agree to deepen cooperation in such fields as culture, education, science and technology, sports and health as well as among media organizations and local governments, to strengthen the third pillar of BRICS cooperation and foster a meaningful resonance of the BRICS partnership amongst its peoples.

61. We value cultural diversity as a precious asset of BRICS cooperation. We stress the role of culture and cultural diversity in promoting sustainable development, and encourage BRICS countries to engage in cultural exchanges and mutual learning to cultivate common values on the basis of diversity and sharing. We welcome the formulation of a BRICS action plan to advance practical cultural cooperation and the establishment of the BRICS Alliance of Libraries, Alliance of Museums, Alliance of Art Museums and National Galleries as well as Alliance of Theaters for Children and Young People. We look forward to the success of the BRICS Culture Festival to be held later in mid-September 2017 in Xiamen. We will continue our work on the establishment of a BRICS Cultural Council to provide the necessary platform to enhance cultural cooperation among BRICS countries.

62. We stress the importance of education to promoting sustainable economic and social development, and to strengthening BRICS partnership, and commend the positive progress in our education cooperation. We reiterate our support for BRICS University League and BRICS Network University in conducting education and research cooperation, welcome efforts to promote cooperation among educational think tanks, and exchanges among youth including by organizing youth summer camps and offering more scholarship opportunities to BRICS students. We agree to share experience and practices in realizing education-related sustainable development goals.

63. We believe in the importance of sports cooperation to popularizing traditional sports and deepening the friendship among BRICS peoples. Recalling the successful hosting of BRICS U-17 Football Tournament in Goa in 2016, we commend the success of the First BRICS Games, which was a highlight of this year's people-to-people exchanges. We encourage relevant departments to sign an MOU on sports cooperation to provide greater impetus to sports cooperation among our five countries.

64. We agree to enhance BRICS role in global health governance, especially in the context of the World Health Organization and UN agencies, and foster the development and improve the availability of innovative medical products through promotion of research and development and access to affordable, quality, effective and safe drugs, vaccines, diagnostics and other medical products and technologies as well as to medical services through enhanced health systems and health financing. We agree to improve surveillance capacity and medical services to combat infectious diseases, including Ebola, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, as well as non-communicable diseases and encourage greater application of ICTs to improve the level of health service provision. We welcome the outcomes of the BRICS Health Ministers Meeting and High-level Meeting on Traditional Medicine, and commend the establishment of a long-term mechanism for traditional medicine exchanges and cooperation, to promote mutual learning of traditional medicines and pass them down to future generations. We welcome the decision to set up the Tuberculosis Research Network, to be presented at the First WHO Global Ministerial Conference Ending Tuberculosis in the Sustainable Development Era: A Multisectoral Response, Moscow, Russian Federation, 16-17 November 2017. We express support for the meeting as well as the First United Nations General Assembly High-Level Meeting on Tuberculosis in 2018. We commit ourselves to enhanced cooperation at international fora on health matters including at G20.

65. We reaffirm our commitment to promote a long-term and balanced demographic development and continue cooperation on population related matters in accordance with the Agenda for BRICS Cooperation on Population Matters for 2015-2020.

66. We note with satisfaction the progress in the exchanges and cooperation in various areas, including governance, film-making, media, think-tank, youth, parliament, local governments and trade union, and agree to further advance such exchanges and cooperation. We commend the first joint film production by BRICS countries and commend the success of the BRICS Film Festival, the Media Forum, Friendship Cities and Local Governments Cooperation Forum, Youth Forum, Young Diplomats Forum and Young Scientists Forum. We appreciate the successful hosting of the BRICS Forum of Political Parties, Think-Tanks and Civil Society Organizations as well as the Seminar on Governance, and will carry these good initiatives forward in the future. In this regard, we note the proposal to establish by China the BRICS Research and Exchange Fund.

67. We appreciate the important progress in BRICS institutional development and reiterate our commitment to further strengthen it to make BRICS cooperation more responsive to the changing situation. We commend China for taking measures during its Chairmanship to enhance the Sherpas' coordination role in BRICS cooperation. We instruct the Sherpas to continue their discussion concerning BRICS institutional development.

68. We recommit our strong support for multilateralism and the central role of the UN in international affairs. We commit to strengthening the coordination and cooperation among BRICS in the areas of mutual and common interests within the UN and other multilateral institutions, including through regular meetings among our permanent representatives in New York, Geneva and Vienna, and further enhance the voice of BRICS in international fora.

69. In continuation of BRICS tradition of outreach since the Durban Summit, we will hold a Dialogue of Emerging Market and Developing Countries on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the building of broad partnerships for development under the theme of "Strengthening Mutually-Beneficial Cooperation for Common Development" in promotion of BRICS Plus cooperation.

70. South Africa, Brazil, Russia and India commend China's Chairmanship in 2017 and express sincere gratitude to the Government and people of China for hosting the Ninth BRICS Summit in Xiamen.

71. China, Brazil, Russia and India extend full support for South Africa in hosting the Tenth BRICS Summit in 2018.

Annex 1 : BRICS Cooperation Outcome Documents

The following outcome documents have been adopted.

Press Communique of the BRICS Leaders Informal Meeting in Hamburg Political and Security Cooperation

1.Media Note of the Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs/International Relations
2. BRICS Roadmap of Practical Cooperation on Ensuring Security in the Use of ICTs
3. Joint Communique on the Meeting of BRICS Special Envoys on Middle East Economic Cooperation
1. BRICS Action Agenda on Economic and Trade Cooperation
2. Seventh Meeting of the BRICS Trade Ministers Statement
3. BRICS Trade in Services Cooperation Roadmap
4. Framework on Strengthening the Economic and Technical Cooperation for BRICS Countries
5. BRICS E-Commerce Cooperation Initiative
6. Terms of Reference (ToR) of BRICS E-Commerce Working Group
7. Terms of Reference (ToR) of BRICS Model E-Po
8. BRICS IPR Cooperation Guidelines
9. Outlines for BRICS Investment Facilitation
10. Agreed Elements of Financial Deliverables of 2017 BRICS Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting
11. BRICS Good Practices on PPP Frameworks
12. Action Plan for Deepening Industrial Cooperation Among BRICS Countries
13. Declaration of the Third BRICS Communications Ministers' Meeting
14. Strategic Framework of BRICS Customs Cooperation
15. BRICS Action Plan for Innovation Cooperation (2017-2020)
16. Hangzhou Declaration of the 5th BRICS Science, Technology & Innovation (STI) Ministerial Meeting
17. Action Plan 2017-2018 in the Framework of BRICS 2015-2018 STI Work Plan
18. Communique of BRICS Heads of Tax Authorities Meeting
19. BRICS Memorandum of Cooperation in Respect of Tax Matters
20. Declaration of the 2nd BRICS Energy Ministerial Meeting
21. Tianjin Statement on Environment of the Third Meeting of BRICS Environment Ministers
22. Joint Declaration of the Seventh Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Agriculture
23. Action Plan 2017-2020 for Agricultural Cooperation of BRICS Countries
24. BRICS Labour and Employment Ministers' Declaration
25. The BRICS Action Plan for Poverty Alleviation and Reduction Through Skills
26. Progress Report on the Implementation of the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership
27. Interbank Local Currency Credit Line Agreement Under BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism
28. Cooperation Memorandum Relating to Credit Ratings Under BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism
29. BRICS Partnership for Urban Environmental Sustainability Initiative
30. BRICS Joint Statistical Publication 2017
31. Terms of Reference (ToR) of BRICS Research Infrastructure and Mega-Science Projects Working Group
32. Terms of Reference (ToR) of BRICS Working Group on Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Partnership
33. Memorandum of Understanding Between BRICS Export Credit Agencies and the New Development Bank on General Cooperation
34. The BRICS Common Position on Governance in the Future of Work
35. BRICS Network of Labour Research Institutes Terms of Reference
36. BRICS Social Security Cooperation Framework
37. BRICS Agricultural Development Report 2017
38. Joint Statement of BRICS Business Forum 2017
39. Memorandum of Understanding Between the BRICS Business Council and the New Development Bank on Strategic Cooperation
40. Joint Declaration of BRICS Business Council on Regulatory Cooperation on Standards

People-to-People Exchanges
1. Action Plan for the Implementation of the Agreement between the Governments of the BRICS States on Cooperation in the Field of Culture
2. Letter of Intent for BRICS Alliance of Libraries Cooperation
3. Letter of Intent of the Founding of the BRICS Alliance of Museums
4. Letter of Intent on the Founding of the BRICS Alliance of Art Museums and National Galleries
5. Letter of Intent for Strategic Cooperation of the BRICS Alliance of Theater for Children and Young People
6. Joint Declaration of BRICS Countries on Strengthening Cooperation in Traditional Medicine
7. Tianjin Communique of BRICS Health Ministers Meeting
8. Beijing Declaration on Education of the Fifth Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Education
9. Action Plan of Promoting BRICS Media Cooperation
10. 2017 BRICS Youth Forum Action Plan
11. Chengdu Initiative of 2017 BRICS Friendship Cities and Local Governments Cooperation Forum
12. Quanzhou Consensus of BRICS Seminar on Governance
13. Fuzhou Initiative of the BRICS Political Parties, Think-Tanks and Civil Society Organizations Forum
14. The 9th BRICS Academic Forum Recommendations to the 9th BRICS Summit
15. Chengdu Consensus of the BRICS Film Delegations of the 2nd BRICS Film Festival
16. BRICS Film Collaboration Plan for the Years 2017 to 2021
17. BFA Program for BRICS Film Students and Talents
18. Joint Declaration on Film Traditional Culture Inheritance and Creative Development of Young Talents
19. BRICS Trade Union Forum Declaration
20. Statement by BRICS Tr Trade Unions to the BRICS Labour and Employment Ministers' Meeting

Note is also taken of the ongoing work on the following documents

Economic Cooperation
1. The Action Plan on BRICS IPR Cooperation
2. Agreement on Cooperation on the BRCS Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation
3. National Accounting Standards Setters of BRICS Countries Joint Statement
4. BRICS Joint Statement on Audit Regulatory Cooperation

People-to-People Exchanges
1. Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Council of Regions of BRICS States
2. Memorandum of Understanding on BRICS Sports Cooperation

Annex 2: Xiamen Action Plan

We take note of the following meetings and events held under China's BRICS Chairmanship before the Xiamen Summit.
Ministerial Meetings and Relevant Events

1. BRICS Leaders' Informal Meeting (7 July 2017, Hamburg)
2. Meeting of BRICS High Representatives for Security Issues (27-28 July 2017, Beijing)
3. Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs/International Relations (18-19 June 2017, Beijing)
4. BRICS Sherpa/Sous-Sherpa Meetings (23-24 February 2017, Nanjing; 14-15 June 2017, Qingdao; 4-5 July 2017, Hamburg; September 2017, Xiamen)
5. BRICS Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meetings/Finance and Central Bank Deputies Meeting (17 March 2017, Baden-Baden; 20 April 2017, Washington D.C.; 19 June 2017, Shanghai)
6. BRICS Local Currency Bond Fund Working Group (20 April, Washington DC; 18 June 2017, Shanghai)
7. BRICS Energy Ministerial Meeting (7 June 2017, Beijing)
8. Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Agriculture and Agrarian Development (16-17 June 2017, Nanjing)
9. BRICS Environment Ministers Meeting (22-23 June 2017, Tianjin)
10. Meeting of BRICS Joint Committee on Space Cooperation (2-3 July 2017, Haikou)
11. Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Education (4-5 July 2017, Beijing)
12. Meeting of BRICS Customs Cooperation Committee (5 July 2017, Brussels)
13. Meeting of BRICS Culture Ministers (5-6 July 2017, Tianjin)
14. BRICS Health Ministers Meeting and High-level Meeting on Traditional Medicine (6-7 July 2017, Tianjin)
15. BRICS Meeting of Drug Regulatory Collaboration (13-14 July 2017, Zhengzhou)
16. BRICS Science, Technology & Innovation Ministerial Meeting (18 July 2017, Hangzhou)
17. Meeting of BRICS Labor and Employment Ministers' Meeting (26-27 July 2017, Chongqing)
18. BRICS Communications Ministers' Meeting (27-28 July 2017, Hangzhou)
19. Meeting of BRICS Heads of Tax Authorities (27-28 July 2017, Hangzhou)
20. BRICS Industry Ministers Meeting (29-30 July 2017, Hangzhou)
21. Meeting of the BRICS Trade Ministers (1-2 August 2017, Shanghai)
22. Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Development Bank (1-2 April 2017, New Delhi)
23. BRICS Business Forum (3-4 September 2017, Xiamen)

Senior Officials/Working Groups/Expert Meetings

1. Meeting of BRICS Senior Officials on Environment (22 June 2017, Tianjin)
2. Meeting of BRICS Senior Officials on Education (4 July 2017, Beijing)
3. Meeting of BRICS Senior Officials on Culture (5 July 2017, Tianjin)
4. BRICS Health Senior Officials Meeting (5 July 2017, Tianjin)
5. Meeting of BRICS Senior Officials on Science, Technology & Innovation (17 July 2017, Hangzhou)
6. BRICS Business Council (31 March 2017, New Delhi; 31 August-2 September 2017, Shanghai & Xiamen)
7. BRICS Anti-Corruption Working Group Meetings (22 January 2017, Berlin; 9 April 2017, Brasilia)
8. BRICS Intellectual Property Examiner Training Seminar (20-24 February 2017, Nagpur)
9. BRICS Intellectual Property Coordination Group Meeting (22-23 February 2017, Nagpur)
10. Meetings of BRICS Contact Group on Economic and Trade Issues (20-21 March 2017, Beijing; 23-25 May 2017, Beijing; 30-31 July 2017, Shanghai)
11. Technical Meeting of BRICS National Statistics Offices (27-29 March 2017, Shanghai)
12. BRICS Working Group Meeting of Customs (29-31 March 2017, Xiamen)
13. Consultation of BRICS Middle East Special Envoys (11-12 April 2017, Visakhapatnam)
14. BRICS Employment Working Group Meetings (19 April 2017, Yuxi; 25 July 2017, Chongqing)
15. BRICS Environmental Working Group Meeting (25-27 April 2017, Tianjin)
16. BRICS Counter Terrorism Working Group Meeting (18 May 2017, Beijing)
17. First Meeting of BRICS Intellectual Property Rights Mechanism (23 May 2017, Beijing)
18. Working Group for the Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Culture (25 May 2017, Beijing)
19. BRICS Science, Technology & Innovation Funding Working Group Meeting (28-31 May 2017, Pretoria)
20. Meeting of BRICS Working Group on Security in the Use of ICTs (1-2 June 2017, Beijing)
21. Working Group Meeting on BRICS Energy Saving and Improvement of Energy Efficiency (5 June 2017, Beijing)
22. Meeting of Heads of BRICS Export Credit Agencies (12-15 June 2017, Hangzhou)
23. BRICS Working Group Meetings on Agricultural Cooperation (15 June 2017, Nanjing)
24. Technical Group Meeting of BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism (28-29 June 2017, Beijing)
25. Working Group Meeting on Interbank Cooperation Mechanism (28-29 June 2017, Beijing)
26. Meeting of BRICS Heads of Delegation on AML (18-23 June 2017, Spain)
27. BRICS Foreign Policy Planning Dialogue (20-21 July 2017, Beijing)
28. BRICS Consultation of Experts on Peace-keeping Affairs (25 July 2017, Beijing)
29. Meeting of BRICS Experts on Tax Matters (25-26 July 2017, Hangzhou)
30. BRICS Working Group Meeting on ICT Cooperation (26 July 2017, Hangzhou)
31. BRICS Anti-Drug Working Group Meeting (16 August 2017, Weihai)
32. Annual Meeting of Interbank Cooperation Mechanism and Financial Forum (31 August - 2 September 2017, Beijing)
33. Meeting of BRICS Heads of Intellectual Property Offices (6-7 April 2017, New Delhi)
34. BRICS Working Group on Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Partnership (9 April, Bengaluru)
35. BRICS Working Group on ICT and High Performance Computing (23-26 April, Guangzhou)
36. BRICS Working Group on Research Infrastructure and Mega-Science Projects (15-16 May, Dubna)
37. BRICS Working Group on Solid State Lighting (19-24 June 2017, Hangzhou)

People-to-people Exchanges Events and Other Meetings
1. BRICS Young Diplomats Forum (30 May - 3 June 2017, Beijing & Linyi)
2. BRICS Media Forum (6-8 June 2017, Beijing)
3. BRICS Think-Tank Council Meeting (10 June 2017, Fuzhou)
4. BRICS Political Parties, Think Tanks and Civil Society Organizations Forum (10-12 June 2017, Fuzhou)
5. BRICS Games (17-21 June 2017, Guangzhou)
6. BRICS Film Festival (23-27 June 2017, Chengdu)
7. BRICS Friendship Cities and Local Governments Cooperation Forum (11-13 July 2017, Chengdu)
8. BRICS Trade Union Forum (24-25 July 2017, Beijing)
9. BRICS Youth Forum (24-28 July 2017, Beijing)
10. BRICS Young Scientist Forum (11-15 July 2017, Hangzhou)
11. BRICS Seminar on Governance (17-18 August 2017, Quanzhou)
12. BRICS Heads of Prosecution Services Meeting (August 2017, Brazil)
13. BRICS Think-Tank Symposiums (22 March 2017, Beijing; 15 May 2017, Guangzhou; 20 May 2017, Chongqing)
14. BRICS International Festival of Theatre Schools (14-21 May 2017, Moscow)
15. Meeting of BRICS Cooperation in the Field of Competition Law (16-20 May 2017, St. Petersburg)
16. Annual Forum "BRICS: Boosting Economic Cooperation" (1-3 June 2017, St. Petersburg)
17. BRICS Supreme Audit Institutions' Technical Cooperation Meeting (June 28-29, 2017, Pretoria)
18. International Congress of Women of SCO and BRICS Countries (2-4 July 2017, Novosibirsk)

We further take note of the upcoming meetings and events under China's BRICS Chairmanship

1. The Foreign Ministers Meeting on the margins of UNGA
2. The Fifth BRICS Sherpa/Sous-Sherpa Meeting
3. BRICS Parliamentary Forum
4. Meeting of BRICS Heads of National Statistics Offices
5. BRICS Trade Fair
6. BRICS Legal Advisor Consultation
7. BRICS Forum on SOE Reform and Governance
8. Meeting of BRICS Cooperation in the Field of Competition Law
9. Third Forum on Small Business of the SCO and BRICS Regions
10. BRICS International Competition Conference
11. BRICS Working Group on Astronomy (21-22 September, Pune)
12. BRICS Export Credit Agencies Technical Workshop (31 October-3 November, Nanjing)
13. BRICS Working Group on Materials Science and Nanotechnology (26-27 October 2017, Yekaterinburg)
14. Annual International Academic Conference "Foresight and STI Policy" (1-2 November, Moscow)
15. BRICS Working Group on Biotechnology and Biomedicine, including Human Health and Neuroscience (15-16 November, 2017, Moscow)
16. BRICS meeting on Ageing

Proposals to be further explored

Ocean Cooperation

2. Establishment of the PPP Project Preparation Fund

3. Establishment of the BRICS Energy Cooperation Platform

4. BRICS Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation

5. Establishment of the BRICS Customs Training Center in Xiamen

6. Establishment of the BRICS Cultural Council
7. Establishment of the BRICS Council of Region
8. Tourism Cooperation
9. Creation of the Working Group on Regional Aviational Aviation